While there is no definitive cause for clubfoot, there are a number of factors that contribute to a child being born with clubfoot.
- Male babies are more likely to be born with clubfoot
- Babies are more likely to have it if a family member has it
- Smoking may increase the risk of clubfoot
- Other birth defects
Clubfoot is classified into two main sections; isolated (idiopathic) and nonisolated. Isolated clubfoot is when the child develops clubfoot without any other medical conditions. However, in nonisolated cases, clubfoot is due to a combination of other musculoskeletal conditions or neuromuscular disorders such as spina bifida. This type of clubfoot requires an extended period of treatment and may require surgical consideration.
- The top of the foot is twisted downwards and inwards. May be twisted to the point where the foot looks upside down.
- The affected limbs may shorter than normal as the muscles, specifically the calves, are underdeveloped.
- If only one foot is affected, it could be up to 1 cm shorter than the other.
- In adulthood patients can develop further deformities and painful calluses